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The current primary drug supply is the main channel of medical institutions at all levels, and urban and rural pharmacies, which share the majority of medical institutions, drug use. As far as I know, because urban and rural development is uneven, leading medical institutions in rural areas lags behind drug use management, need to increase support and remediation efforts.
Drug use a lower threshold
Operate pharmacies, both require the legal representative of a high school education, but also as a quality person in charge of pharmacy professionals, and hardware and software are put forward higher requirements. \"Drug Administration Law\" and the \"Drug Administration Law Enforcement Regulations\" clearly states: \"the establishment of pharmaceutical retail enterprises above the county level where the enterprise shall be subject to drug regulatory approval and issue of a\" drug business license. \"No\" Drug License \", and shall not operate drugs.\" \"Drug companies have drug regulatory department under the State Council established under this Act,\" pharmaceutical quality management standard \"management drugs. drug regulatory departments of pharmaceutical enterprises in accordance with the provisions of whether the\" pharmaceutical quality management practices \"requirements for certification; qualified for certification and issue certification.\"
The existing laws and regulations on medical institutions to use drugs not specifically establish a licensing system, medical institutions, as long as the health authorities issued a \"medical institution\" you can use drugs. In addition, rural clinics has not been introduced basic drugs catalog, the scope of rural medical institutions, drug use is not restricted, and can be combined with Class III medical devices, compared to the pharmacies, the pharmaceutical use of a lower threshold.
Medication management paid insufficient attention to rural
According to my investigation, a long time, the author of Linzi District, Zibo City, Shandong Province, part of the medical institutions is not enough emphasis on pharmacy management, especially at the township level hospitals, due to funding constraints, a clear preference for funding medical equipment, medicines required for the management relative lack of investment in facilities and equipment. The resulting Drug Administration medical institutions in rural areas was significantly lower than the county Qujiyishang medical institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises. On the other hand, village-level medical personnel from the technical standards of drugs, legal awareness and quality consciousness is generally low, the number of management attention and medicines out of the economic benefits, but they ignore the quality of medicines management. I found during inspections, many rural medical institutions pharmacies, medical supply store or even better than an ordinary pharmacy hardware, software development level is not high, less than to ensure safe and effective clinical use of the basic requirements.
According to the survey, rural towns, especially the lack of pharmacy professionals, many primary health care institutions have non-pharmaceutical professionals working in the pharmacy of the phenomenon, most of the village health posts, private clinics are not equipped with pharmacy professionals. On the other hand, grassroots Food and Drug Administration staff shortage, lack of professionals, not only to face over a wide range, length of medical treatment units, but also to take food, medical devices, health products, cosmetics and other aspects of the regulatory regulatory power is clearly insufficient.
Weak enforcement of relevant laws and regulations
In the author\\ s area, for example, despite the region\\ s medical institutions have implemented a \"Shandong drug use quality management practices\" (GUP) certification, but certification after the drug administration system is still difficult to implement. I checked and found that some medical institutions for drug procurement and acceptance strict, ask the supplier qualification is not timely, product acceptance off useless. In addition, various rules and regulations, such as drug storage, maintenance, a library, deployment, incident handling system is not perfect, especially in rural medical institutions in this regard the following issues are more prominent, drug classification is not clear, stacking does not meet the requirements, display more confusion, the Treasury and the pharmacy does not regularly monitor the temperature and humidity and so on. City dispensaries, mostly open-type-counter sales, and sometimes patients without prescription pharmacy you can buy two types of psychotropic drugs.
Increase policy support
I suggested that all levels of government and relevant departments should increase health funding efforts to urge the rural medical institutions in the use of funds to the pharmacy (storeroom) building tilt, primary health care institutions to improve management of drug storage conditions, shrinking the gap between urban and rural areas, comprehensive primary drugs used to enhance the quality of management.
Relevant departments should formulate laws and regulations, strict drug use permit access to health care institutions to implement the market access system for drug use. As the current drug control laws and regulations only for pharmaceutical production and management to implement strict market access system, whether for medical conditions with the use of drugs, pharmaceutical sector can not be monitored in advance, only after its procurement irregularities, the use of counterfeit investigate the behavior of drugs. Lack of chain of custody, so that medical institutions, pharmaceutical management awareness diluted, an objective to increase the difficulty of combating illegal and criminal acts.
Access to medical institutions, drug use to implement the system, either strictly control market access standards, but also monitoring the implementation of the standard. Drug use from the current access system to establish the feasibility point of view, primarily to administrative regulations or local laws and regulations in the form of setting, on the one hand, new start-up medical institutions must comply with statutory requirements or standards, be permitted to \"use\" of drugs eligible; On the other hand, treatment of existing medical institutions qualified to carry out examination and verification, less than the statutory requirements or standards, do not allow their pharmacy or medical supply store a single set.
Regulate drug use behavior
Grassroots medical institutions, pharmaceutical quality management is a dynamic process, drug purchase, storage, sales of each link should have the statutory procedures, any part of a problem, are likely to affect the quality of medicines. Currently, some provinces and cities to develop a \"medical drug use quality management practices\", but the specification is not obvious, I propose to accelerate the development of institutional pharmacy pace of regulatory laws and regulations, medical institutions, pharmacies for supporting the introduction of penalties for violations of the terms. For example: \"Drug Administration Law\" Article 28 Medical institutions must develop and implement pharmaceutical care system, but did not set the appropriate penalty clauses, resulting in work is often difficult to implement, therefore, necessary to further improve the \"Drug Administration Law,\" the medical agencies responsible for provision of pharmacy law.
In addition, according to law with a primary health care institutions should meet the qualification of pharmacy technicians, strengthening from a drug of continuing education. First, the implementation of pharmaceutical practitioners qualification system. Drugs through pre-service training of employees and must pass the examination, with the Drug Administration issued a \"job card\" before engaging in direct contact with the work; second is to strengthen continuing education, from basic knowledge of drugs, pharmaceutical laws and regulations, Pharmaceutical ethics medicines and other aspects to improve the overall quality of employees; third is to encourage employees to actively participate in pharmaceutical professional and technical titles and qualifications assessment and examination, a fundamental solution to the quality of medical institutions, pharmaceutical employees in question. At the same time, to introduce highly educated, professional pharmacy personnel, and continuously added to the law enforcement team, create and play area, town and village levels and Drug coordinators and members of the role of information, mobilize the masses, to strengthen the primary drug market supervision, strengthen primary drug regulatory power to ensure the safety of mass medication.
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Establish a bridge
– Impact on the construction of five key health care system dialogue
If a doctor all the time is spent on patient care, is not it better?
The answer is no.
In fact, it is this idea to the treatment that many doctors had a negative impact. Now, in the field of health care, many doctors agree that: You should spend more time on patient care, in addition to the other things are not important. However, this idea is wrong, this will encourage doctors to reduce spending in the health care system on some of the time. Compared with the care of patients, these institutions is equally important, the doctor only rely on a sound health care system, in order to provide the highest quality of medical services, without the doctor s efforts, this system will not fully play its role.
Lack of communication
As the hospital system become more complex and inter-related, which requires doctors to regularly participate in some of the critical dialogue, and through dialogue to improve the staff, policies, programs and workflow issues. And if doctors less involved in these critical dialogue, will give the patient, the hospital have a big impact.
In one study (the study included 1,700 doctors, nurses, managers included), we found that this communication is prevalent. Most doctors encounter problems, rarely five critical dialogue, which directly reduces the patient s quality of medical services received, while the enthusiasm of the doctor s work also had a negative impact.
In addition, we also found that those long-term dialogue for five key physicians, their relationship with other colleagues satisfied with the quality of medical service and efficiency are relatively high.
5 critical dialogue
Doctors often do not carry out the following five key dialogue, dialogue with the five key result of a direct impact on good communication.
1 pair of concerns about the ability of others — 81% of the doctors said at least 10% of the nurses ability to make their own concerns. At the same time, two-thirds of the doctors said, the ability of other concerns about a colleague. Ability of these people do not trust others, also brought many negative consequences.
Less than one-twelfth of the doctors can make an effective manner the ability of nurses worried, even though these problems have existed for 1-5 years or even more years. If these concerns are related to other doctors, less than 1% of people will put forward in an efficient manner. Because of this, these problems still continue to exist, the hospital s medical services are often adversely affected.
2 management decisions — 93% of the doctors made the decision to the manager was disappointed. For example, in a hospital, only to orthopedic doctors assigned two rooms, which will directly affect their work. Unfortunately, fewer than one in five doctors will take the time to use the appropriate manner to reflect to the person in charge of this issue, hope that the working environment can be improved.
— 3 managers do not trust the health care field, there are doctors and mutual distrust between the leadership issue. The two sides failed to direct, frank expression of distrust of each other, will not be able to find an effective solution. In our survey, 97% of doctors do not consider their leaders expressed concern the vital interests. However, most doctors choose only to their colleagues or other people to reflect these issues, but those who see things improve and there is no substantial impact.
4 staffing issues — more than 80% of doctors and other staffing issues very dissatisfied, these problems have hindered them to provide higher quality patient care. For example, a hospital may try to use more practice nurses, anesthesiologists, midwives or other non-physician staff, but very few people can change this state. Some people will complain about the letter sent, or complaint to the Medical Director. But very few people can really be the key to dialogue. Influence the results of the doctor s getting smaller, the problem is still not improved. Doctors will feel more depressed. Leadership is doing in the later decision, the doctors were excluded.
5 health care programs and processes more than two-thirds of the problem — the doctors said, are rarely involved in clinical decision making. At the same time, most of the leaders also complain even if they tried to get doctors to participate in decision-making, would have been the doctor s resistance, such as the performance of doctors will be very stubborn, very cold. So, leaders and doctors, who said what is it? According to our experience, they are not wrong.
The problem is that doctors do not think there need to participate in these critical dialogue. Our research shows that they kind of thinking and behavior is very dangerous.
When they try to reduce participation in policies, programs and processes to develop, they lose that affects the most important ways to improve the system. This behavior also allows the already existing problems become more serious, both for himself and the patient had a negative impact.
Critical dialogue, best practices
Research shows that those who take the time to engage in a dialogue of the doctor in the follow-up work to better improve their own behavior, their own and are therefore also benefit patients.
Before, we spent a lot of time to observe that the critical dialogue with the doctors, and doctors from some outstanding get some suggestions.
Their recommendations that these doctors talk to has a different view. These practices effectively improve the doctor s own influence.
The risk of non-dialogue
Ongoing critical dialogue and others is the primary difference between the views of the conversation. Most people are concerned, you do not tell my colleagues that the lack of capacity, there are some problems on them. If we tell them the problems that may occur a lot of bad things.
For example, "they will get angry, and gradually alienated us and they certainly do not agree with our view. Why should we bother?" Good communicator with the important difference between ordinary people, that they and others in assessing risk completely different. First, they consider the risk of these problems is not to say, but say the problem is not the risk.
This does not mean foolhardy. They realize that the "office politics" sensitivity. But they do not only consider these. In fact, if you say the problem will first consider how the risk that you are basically not going to say. And if you do not say the first consideration is the risk that you will often say.
To control emotions by controlling the story
When we would very much like to speak their minds, they tend to do very bad. First, if you can not control their emotions, can not be obtained from the critical dialogue in good results, it would never make you angry when critical dialogue.
This skill is a mind exercise, not just the eloquence of the exercise. Our emotions are not the response to external happening, but the performance of our inner thoughts.
Typically, people will realize that good communication, when the other offensive themselves, may be exaggerated or overreact. At this time, they will not get angry, but would suspect that before the judge: "Why a reasonable, and rational person would do?" This suspicion will make them reconsider their assumptions and conclusions, can make their own emotional relaxation.
Let people feel safe
Typically, most people there is such a misconception: that hard to accept when they heard something, they will self-defense. In fact, the idea is largely wrong.
We have observed numerous critical dialogue, that dialogue and dialogue with the success of the risk is almost nothing. The real impact of the success of the dialogue, can not let others listen to you speak in a kind of sense of security.
Therefore, the critical first 30 seconds of dialogue, you must make sure that the other party to know two things:
One you care about their interests and their goals.
2 you respect them.
If you tell them the success of these two points, even if they do not prefer, we will consider and accept your dialogue. If you can not tell them the success of these two points, 90% of them will reject you.
Stick to the facts
Your next step is to pave the way for the factual basis for your concern. For example, if you think that the leadership did not allow you to participate in decision-making is correct, then you have a duty to use specific examples to express your concerns. However, among these, most people tend to their own language and the fact that emotional confusion.
For example, you might say, "You deliberately arranged in three neonatal intensive care units attended the meeting knowing that I can not." The language of emotion expressed dissatisfaction with the leadership of this arrangement.
Your judgments are not necessarily true, it probably just your point of view. They arranged for the fact that only some of your time to coincide with the meeting. You need to clear this point.
When you can fully elaborate these facts, you can tell why these facts make you unhappy, so that you can find other people with you to determine whether the right, rather than just blindly blame others.
Encourage others to join the conversation
The key objectives of the dialogue is a common exchange rather than self-monologue. You describe your concerns, the need to encourage others to join your conversation, and express their support or opposition. So as to show that they are willing to dialogue with you.
Through extensive observation, we found that, as long as people believe that you are willing to listen to their different points of view, they were very willing to listen to your point of view. You can say "Do you have any different opinion? I am very willing to listen to your advice!", To represent their interests.
Our research shows that those who provide the best medical care, and did not spend all their time in patient care, but time to spend part of the critical dialogue, in this way continue to promote the health care system improvements.
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Also known as digital signage digital signage is rapidly developing in recent years, digital audio and video technology based on dynamic information distribution system, it can place at a specific time-specific advertising messages for specific populations to play. With the rapid development of information society, the medical industry and gradually integrate with the digital age, as a representative of advanced communication tools, has a \"fifth media,\" said the digital signage into the health care industry has been successful and widely used.
Timely and accurate medical information broadcast
Based on digital signage with the timeliness, accuracy, efficiency, hospital release according to different seasons disease prevention measures, disease knowledge, common sense health promotion, health promotion philosophy of life, rich in medical knowledge of patients and their families. In addition, for emergency, real-time information or notice spots, registration and emergency information dissemination through the digital signage system is also demonstrated to reduce the burden on the medical staff to improve hospital efficiency.
Vaccine Immunol functions of human
Outpatient hospital abortion lobby is the most intensive areas, come to medical patients and accompanying persons are generally required to divert to the hall through the outpatient departments and wards all through the digital signage distribution system, the hospital will be able to e-map, special clinics and departments , the authority of doctors, experts and other Vaccine Immunol information disclosure to patients and accompanying persons to seek medical treatment as soon as possible, to achieve the purpose of rapid triage groups, so that patients receive treatment as soon as possible, to reduce pain.
Digital signage regulation monotonous atmosphere of the hospital
Hospital is not a \"lucky\" place, but we have to admit that it is an integral part of life, hospital for patients is a very depressing place, but the spirit of the high tension for patients with disease remission harmful a profit. Therefore, hospitals can be animated by digital signage, phrases, news, entertainment and many other elements of the play, adjust the oppressive atmosphere, the transfer of the patient\\ s attention, create a relaxed atmosphere for medical treatment.
Digital signage to help hospitals establish a brand image
With increasing pressure on hospital survival, hospital brand value becomes evident, through the digital signage system to play videos image of the hospital has become a trend, area hospitals for patient characteristics, new drugs, new treatments and new medical equipment for publicity facilitate the patient to understand the dynamic health care treatment, instead of the traditional information dissemination tools to maximize the utilization of information on the basis of economic efficiency but also improves the hospital, really serve two purposes.
Currently, the digital hospital in China has just started, digital signage efficient, fast, timely, convenient medical information is dealing with development needs. I believe in the near future, digital signage is bound to become an important part of the medical industry.
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Although the \"pharmaceutical industry second Five\" and the related supporting policy planning has not yet introduced the two, but according to informed sources, the plan clearly, \"five-second\" period, the industrial scale steady growth in industrial output 20% annual growth target above, by 2015, the national pharmaceutical industrial output value will reach 3 trillion yuan.
Support the medical device industry is second five planning emphasis. China Pharmaceutical Enterprise Management Association, said in Matilda, in 2015 total output value of China\\ s pharmaceutical industry is expected to reach 3600 to 3700 billion level; from the beginning of this year to 2015, average annual growth rate will reach 23-24%.
At present, the advanced medical equipment has been included in the national seven strategic emerging industries, combined with the medical industry digital, intelligent, automated technology trends and the deepening health care reform, the rising demand for modern health care market situation came into being.
Benefit from the \"second five\" plan to improve people\\ s livelihood, health care information technology inflection point has occurred, the next three years will maintain rapid growth. 2011 to invest in health information technology will reach $ 20 billion fund, and \"five-second\" period of national investment in this area will remain the norm.
China Medical Equipment Association Deputy Secretary-General Meng Jianguo said that this year the central government will spend billions of improving health care information systems, including the armed rural medical institutions; the same time, the Ministry of Health allocated 2.45 billion yuan of special funds this year to give 450,000 village clinics configure computers and networks, digital medical records.
One hundred billion market capacity automated demand
Healthcare information technology in the global trend, China\\ s number of medical and health care of things such as the development of information industry began to wind and water. It is reported that Chinese medical device market, currently has capacity of 100 billion yuan, representing a compound annual growth rate of 21%, and drugs, the proportion of 1:10, but the level of developed countries is 1:1. Currently 60% of China\\ s medical institutions, medical devices are used in the mid-1980s, medical equipment, medical equipment spending in the pharmaceutical industry, the proportion of consumption accounted for only 13%, while the international average of 42%, medical equipment, there is a large room to grow.
Whether it is the number of medical or health information, along with the new medical reform policies gradually implemented, the medical industry, the demand for automation products simultaneously increase. In medical or medical institutions, such as medical equipment assembly, dispensing, lab automation, mechanization, material handling, packaging and electronics assembly so inseparable from the automation control core.
In the pharmaceutical companies, advanced manufacturing technology for the automated production line in the pharmaceutical industry\\ s rapid growth. Some combination of automation and high-performance direct-drive rotary motion processing equipment and applications, improving productivity and accuracy. Currently under construction, total investment 238 million yuan in Fujian Fuan Aucma Continental Medical Device Industry Park will be ready to introduce advanced automated production lines, to create an annual output of 280,000 health care equipment industrial park.
Although the country and abroad, medical automation, there are still some gaps, but in recent years the field of automation technology in a large number of popular medicine, not only improve the efficiency and quality of pharmaceutical production, more importantly, reduce the quality of a major accident drug production occurred. Thai hair day Lux Group Ltd. automation manager Wang Hongshan that, Batch (batch control) technology and servo technology widely used in the field of medicine, pharmaceutical and medical packaging will be pushed to an unprecedented height.
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Pakistan is located in the southern Indian subcontinent, the population has more than 100 million. Over the years, it has been a friendly neighbor of China. Although the overall Asia, Pakistan is not a medical device manufacturing power, but with Asia\\ s largest surgical-Sutures/">surgical instruments manufacturing industry, its products 80% to 90% for export, so the medical equipment belonging to the country\\ s export-oriented industries.
Pakistan Yixie development
Production of surgical instruments in Pakistan began in the late 1940s. Was already achieved, \"India-Pakistan divide and conquer\", that is the subcontinent\\ s former British colony was artificially divided into mainly Hindu India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan\\ s two major powers. At that time, the area is basically all medical device products mainly from former colonial countries – Britain, even the most commonly used surgical instruments once the damage, but also to repair to London, even the fastest on the road would take more than a month. In 1947, 巴基斯坦锡亚 Erke Te City, a skillful use of the old blacksmith home Ahmadi a simple lathe to produce some of the hospital urgently needed surgical equipment products. Because of its reliable and cheap, plus the hospital was a great need for such products in Pakistan, it organized a group of fellow Ahmadi, first incorporated in Pakistan surgical instruments manufacturing company. This is the beginning of Pakistan\\ s surgical instruments industry, made tough.
Commerce and Industry of Pakistan in 2006, according to statistics released by the registered manufacturer of surgical instruments around 1600, produce a variety of surgical instruments product of about 240 million. Annual production value of the national surgical instruments industry, 14 billion rupees, the total number of industries employ 15 million to 16 million people. 2005 – 2006 fiscal year, Pakistan\\ s total exports of surgical instruments $ 186 million. And then the international market, total sales of surgical instruments in the $ 51.38 billion, in absolute terms, exports of surgical instruments in Pakistan only a small share of the international market, but export volume is very large. According to Pakistan\\ s General Administration of Customs reported that the country\\ s surgical instruments industry machinery and equipment needed to come from four major powers, the United States, Germany, Britain and China.
Low value-added products
While Pakistan\\ s number of surgical device manufacturers up to 1600, but in fact the real number of large companies are not many. According to reports, Pakistan with annual sales of 60 million to 1 billion rupees of surgical instruments with less than 30 companies, and medium-sized companies (annual sales of 10 million to 60 million rupees) is also only about 50, others are in sales of less than Rs 10 million small companies. The situation with China\\ s medical device industry is very similar to the composition. China and Pakistan are medical device manufacturers a large number of Asian countries.
Pakistan\\ s surgical instruments industry for nearly 70 years of development history, and its products are mainly exported to USA, UK, Germany and other developed countries. At present the country\\ s production and export of about a dozen types of surgical instrument products, including: anesthesia equipment, lung / heart surgical instruments, ophthalmic surgical instruments, gynecology and obstetrics equipment, gastrointestinal surgical instruments, dental surgical instruments, nose and throat equipment, urinary tract devices, orthopedic devices, surgical instruments and beauty of tumor / complete range of orthopedic instruments and other products of a variety of surgical instruments. So far, Pakistan has 300 medical device company obtained ISO9002 certificate, of which 250 companies have passed the GMP authentication. Of course, these companies are mostly export-oriented, export-oriented enterprises. At present, Pakistan\\ s largest 30 medical device companies, about 1 / 3 located in the birthplace of medical devices – Sialkot City, other big companies are located in major cities such as Karachi and Lahore.
Over the past 10 years, Pakistan\\ s exports of surgical instruments has been growing steadily. According to the customs statistics released in 2000, total exports of $ 124 million of Pakistan\\ s surgical instruments products, $ 183 million in 2004, 2008 and 2009 despite the international financial crisis and the impact of weak demand in major Western countries and other unfavorable factors, However, Pakistan continues to maintain the growth momentum of exports of surgical instruments, the annual exports amounting to U.S. $ 200 million. This shows that, over the years, Pakistan\\ s exports of surgical instruments for its excellent product quality and relatively low price to win a large number of fixed-Western clients.
Pakistan surgical instruments and products are mainly exported share of the export share of country: U.S. 29.2%; Germany 13.4%; UK 9.1%; Italy 5.3%; United Arab Emirates 4.7%; France 12%; Japan, 2.2%; other countries and regions 32.1 %.
Can be clearly seen from the above, Pakistan\\ s main export markets in developed countries, surgical instruments, the number of non-developed countries export only a small share.
1998 to 2008 the world trade of surgical instruments market: $ 22.7 billion in 1998; $ 30.33 billion in 2002; $ 51.38 billion in 2006; 2008 $ 68.9 billion.
In 1998 and 2008, the world\\ s leading exporter of surgical instruments and their share of world market share is as follows: United States 24.71%; Germany 12.33%; Netherlands 7.13%; Mexico 5.89%; Ireland 5.89%; the United Kingdom 5.23%; France 5.05%; Japan 4.57%; Belgium 4.07%; Italy 3.45%; other countries and regions together accounted for 22.16%.
As can be seen from the above data, the surgical instruments in Pakistan and China in the international market still can not enter the top 10, Mexico is the only export of surgical instruments into the top 10 developing countries. This shows that both China and Pakistan, the surgical instruments industry to catch up with developed European countries still have a long way to go. For Pakistan surgical instruments industry, the other negative factors from neighboring countries such as Singapore medical device industry, the rise of competition. Singapore has Asia\\ s first-class technical talent and strong financial support. In recent years, the country continue to develop high value-added medical products, including a variety of \"mechatronics\" surgical equipment products. Therefore, although Singapore\\ s land area is not large, less populated (only 480 million nationwide), but it is understood, high-grade surgical instruments last year, Singapore\\ s total exports accounted for 1.05% international market share, and has more than Pakistan\\ s total exports of surgical instruments . This indicates that the development of high value-added exports of medical equipment to the highly competitive international medical device market to gain a foothold. Although Pakistan is a major exporter of old surgical instruments, but not power. Their exports are mostly lower-priced, low value-added products. Although Pakistan\\ s annual export of surgical instruments nearly 200 million products (the vast majority of general surgery instruments products), but its exports still can not keep up exports of medical equipment in Singapore, Asia\\ s rising star.
Yi Xie industry a way out of China
Export medical products is technology and talent competition. Only, like Singapore, as much as possible to develop high-grade surgical instrument products, in order to truly gain the initiative in the international market. In fact, China\\ s exports of medical devices and Pakistan somewhat similar (not exactly the same), China\\ s exports of medical devices in the same number of products with low added value, high consumption of disposable medical products, although the large number of products exported, However, profitability is very low. Pakistan\\ s status as medical device industry, medical equipment industry in China mirror, from which lights up the medical device industry, our inadequacies.
In short, China\\ s medical device industry, the development should be found in neighboring Pakistan, the experience and lessons learned, to study Singapore\\ s experience in a relatively short period of time for the development of medical products with high added value, reduce energy and raw material consumption, export of equipment and to improve product added value.
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In the first half, China\\ s medical equipment to maintain a larger surplus in foreign trade, export growth was slightly lower than import growth by 2 percentage points, but the trade surplus compared with the same period in 2010 decreased $ 841 million. In this regard, the estimates, in 2011 China\\ s medical equipment if the product can maintain existing international market share and expanded, is expected to achieve 15% annual export growth, China\\ s total import and export of medical devices will exceed $ 25 billion.
First half of 2011, the average monthly export volume of China\\ s medical equipment was 11.89 billion U.S. dollars, the highest monthly value of exports in June reached $ 1.351 billion, growth of 4.41%. From the trade point of view, accounting for 56.59% of general trade, processing trade accounted for 38.12%, with little change compared to same period in 2010.
In addition, according to informed medical network statistics, first half of 2011, China\\ s medical equipment amounted to $ 12.051 billion imports and exports, up 58.15 percent, of which exports $ 7.134 billion, an increase of 57.34%; imports amounted to 4.917 billion U.S. dollars, up 59.34%.
It is not difficult to see the first half of China\\ s medical equipment to maintain a larger surplus in foreign trade, export growth was slightly lower than import growth by 2 percentage points, the yuan continues to appreciate the impact of export profits more and more obvious.
And the whole first half of 2011 China\\ s medical equipment to maintain a larger surplus in foreign trade, export growth was slightly lower than import growth by 2 percentage points, the cumulative trade surplus amounted to $ 2.217 billion, but the amount of trade surplus in 2010 compared with the reducing the $ 841 million.
Merchants who have predicted the medical equipment, medical devices in China in 2011 if the product can maintain existing market share and expanded internationally, then, is expected to achieve 15% annual export growth, import growth will be higher than exports, the trade surplus is expected to narrowing. Then in 2011 China\\ s total import and export of medical devices will exceed $ 25 billion.
Looking second half of 2011, the scarcity of resources in the world and domestic economic inflation, grain, cotton, chemical products, water, electricity, gas and other raw materials and power prices showed a rising trend will result in some disruption of production activities, not timely delivered to foreign customers. Some companies now general increase in labor costs by 10% to 20%, which is also part of the international order will result in lower labor costs to ASEAN and other countries and regions. Generally denominated in U.S. dollars for China\\ s medical device companies, since the difference depends on the exchange rate has long been a larger profit margin is generally small, RMB appreciation will undoubtedly bring more of their losses, the future of competition in the industry and the export price risk will be higher. At the same time, imports will expand import and export of China\\ s medical device industry, the second half of 2011, balance of trade priorities.
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At present, many people believe that our health care system has been "market" of the, and the area of ??health problems in the health care system due to the "market." So, our health care system in the end is not "market" out? In this regard, it is debated, but no clear answer. I believe that it is necessary to sort out this issue, because clearly the status of the system to determine, is the basis for further reform of institutional policy.
Smoke and mirrors
Many experts say that at home and abroad, the Chinese medical and health fields currently existing problems are solved because the "market" caused.
Back in 2003, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, one scholar has written that the reason why China s public health situation deteriorated, "but the main reason is probably connected with us in a vague general idea of ??reform there are two kinds of superstitions about – one is the superstition of economic growth; the other is blind faith in market. "According to his words," the 1990s after the establishment of a market economy was established as the objectives of the reform, medical and health gradually to the market ", while the final result," China s the area of ??health is probably the world s most market-oriented one of the areas. "
2005, issued by a related group of special research report, China since the reforms, "the basic medical and health system change to a commercial, market-oriented" and its negative consequences, "mainly for the decline in medical services and health equity investment macro-inefficient ", and" root of the problem in the commercial, market-oriented direction of the development contrary to the basic medical and health law. "
In the same year, a Peking University s China Center for Economic Research Scholars also published an article pointed out that China s rapid economic growth "is not directly brought about the improvement of people s health", and the increase in investment conditions, "the worse the performance of health care." The scholars believe that "The main reason is state failure and market failure the Government in the reform process in the development of health care there is no clear direction and goals, blindly health care market."
These indicate that several aspects of Chinese medical and health experts have reached a high degree of status consensus, which is the reform and opening up, China s status of health care system has been completely "market." In view of these scholars, because the special nature of health care, resulting in market-oriented health reform route is bound to fail.
Many issues involved here, but in order to clarify the crux, we should first understand our health care system in the end is not completely "market."
Odds with the fact that
For many people, our health care has entered the market-oriented way is a self-evident reality. Is not it? Now people are to spend their own money to see a doctor (whether direct dig individual pockets to pay, or by social security or tax pays for); a number of public and private hospitals not only "Mo money come in sick", but also the use of information and technology dominance, induced Patients see a doctor to spend more money – such and such a buy, a sell, not the market? Sale of medical services so common, is not "market" what is it?
National health care spending for high-speed increase, is it not the "market" to blame?
However, the capacity of the author to ask, when a lot of purchasing power concentrated in health services, when the supply of medical and public health aspects of what has made a response? Is not difficult to answer this question, of course, is the result of the first hospitals and health services of people engaged in "hair", and overtly or covertly income rolling. So, when the demand for medical institutions and practitioners focused on the growth momentum in the next highly profitable market, the phenomenon of what is destined to come one after another?
If this is conclusive experts chisel words "market" and highly profitable practice, once the news came Daihatsu, stop the world heroes determined to "Breaking and Entering" – set up more hospitals and clinics, mobilize more people to study medicine, adding more health services – until the line of business practice of "excess profits" is averaging down.
This means that, if there really "market" in this world, practice and made their fortunes is the first reaction is to mobilize more resources into the second reaction is inevitable. It is clear that the former is the growth in demand caused by changes in income distribution, which is the re-allocation of resources with the price mechanism.
However, I survey found that: 1. People health
The increase in health costs and expenses, a few times even 100 times higher than the increase in clinic visits, thus the cost of each treatment increased rapidly – "expensive" is also; 2 each medical institutions as well as each health care , the average gain should be in service revenues have been significantly increased; 3 Overall productivity of our health services have not improved (although in different hospitals, there are significant differences between); 4 is the most important people a lot of money on health services, to stimulate the supply side, there s no corresponding increase in resource mobilization.
Where seen in this and other "market" mean?
Since reform and opening up, Chinese people s daily life use, has undergone great changes. In general, everything from the shortage of hard times into the product an adequate supply of services to improve quickly, inexpensive things flooding the market, which tracks the most basic, is that once concentrated demand, the seller made their fortunes, and soon attracted a large number of "backward elements" to invest in factories set up shop, switch to mobilize human, technical management study, and soon form a production capacity of providers to, and then each of its plan, bargain or competition, or innovation of the strange, until the same has the same products and services into the homes of ordinary people.
It is these horizontal experience, the "Chinese health care market" theory has flaws. Again, I want to debate the question is not "market" is good, this should not, but whether the Chinese health care is not already "market." Some experts, government funding accounts for the decline in the proportion of total health expenditure, as health care "market" basis. I believe that it ignores the question: government spending to reduce the proportion of health costs at the same time, there is no access to health services on the door? Another expert said, "various types of capital can enter the field of medical services, basically there is no entry and exit restrictions, the new layout, and services medical institutions targeting depends on market demand conditions." If they are right, why the medical and public health needs to increase so rapidly, the average charges for medical services a few times, a hundred times improved, but did not stimulate the country s medical institutions and a corresponding increase in the number of staff?
Of course, I have no intention to "market" of a unified concept, after all, each on their own which can justify a definition. But I think it is important to pay attention to a real problem, which is China s medical and public health systems, with demand high in the case, why is the ability to mobilize resources to increase the supply so low? I believe that, regardless of what we have argued that this problem is not resolved, to improve health services in China s policy objectives, if not castles in the air, so it is also certain difficulties.
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"Do not eat staple food, hungry, eat fruit." In recent years, has been in a "weight loss" Ms. Wang insisted running every morning and evening, and basically do not touch when eating rice, noodles and other food, eat fruits, vegetables Yogurt drink again. "Is still very effective, the beginning of the month, all of a sudden lost 7 pounds." Ms. Wang is very satisfied with their weight loss, in the last three years, she has maintained a very slim body, but in the health physical examination, she was found to have iron deficiency anemia, but usually the body is also very poor, often dizziness, nausea, very tired, almost cold once or twice every month.
Lee ten years in business, banquet entertainment is common. Behalf of the water to wine, with vegetables on behalf of the meal, Gongchoujiaocuo, business booming, the body is getting worse, and often have a sense of fatigue. The doctor told him, and often eat only a bite drink staple, is very damaging to the liver, cardiovascular, and carbohydrates to enhance liver detoxification function, moderate intake of staple foods can play a hepatoprotective role.
Family health history has been promoting healthy eating need to "grain for the full, five fruits for their families," that every body must intake a certain amount of staple foods and fruits and vegetables. Staple food intake, easily lead to blood deficiency, kidney deficiency. However, a recent survey shows that the modern less and less consumption of staple foods, has been shortage of potential, which gives a certain health risks.
First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, deputy director of nutrition physician pay Sansen said that some white-collar workers do not eat to lose weight eating only vegetables, the staple food is a great state. If the staple diet will lead to a lack of long-term blood sugar levels lower, resulting in dizziness, palpitations, brain dysfunction and other problems can cause severe low blood sugar coma, over time, will result in calcium, iron, potassium and other trace elements in the loss of . In addition, the staple food but also lead to too little metabolic disorders. Because cereal foods contain carbohydrates, the body is the basic source of energy. Meanwhile, the body s metabolic system of mutual restraint, the staple food intake reduction will cause fat metabolism disorders. And fat metabolism disorder of glucose metabolism is the incentive, it will induce diabetes.
Not a bite to eat light, but also easy to induce colon cancer. Jiangsu Provincial People s Hospital, director of clinical nutrition has Shan said, the modern is often fed to eat rice dishes, resulting in fat intake is too high. Many people cooked dishes and selection of health products are now more concerned about, but ignored the staple food intake. Meals before eating, and then not eat staple food, is caused by an important reason for high incidence of colon cancer.
The United States also pointed out that a medical study, intake of carbohydrates is too small, may also cause amnesia. This is because the brain cells need glucose for energy, but the brain cells can not store glucose, the blood needs through the continual supply of carbohydrate food intake, may result in brain cells of glucose needed to reduce the supply of learning, memory and thinking hurt .
Experts suggested that staple contains the body essential nutrients for the body to provide basic, primary energy. Staple food of the energy necessary for the body, and staple foods provide the body energy is much better than protein, fat for energy more efficiently and securely. Therefore, all of the nutritional recommendations are provided a heat production of carbohydrates per day is generally 50% of total calories to 60% or so.